The town of Hainburg is located on the Danube between Vienna and Bratislava in the industrial quarter of Lower Austria, close to the Slovakian border, and is the easternmost town in Austria.
In the first centuries of our era, an important border station of the Roman Empire was located here, where Rome's legions were stationed as protection for Carnuntum and Vindobona.
With its 2.5 km long city walls, three preserved gates and 15 towers from the 13th century, Hainburg has one of the oldest and best preserved city fortifications in Europe.
In 1108 the castle came into the possession of the Babenbergs. In the second half of the 12th century, the castle was extended by the ransom of Richard the Lionheart. Around 1220-1225 the fortifications were further strengthened. Among other things, the Vienna Gate was built, making it the largest medieval city gate in Europe. The lower part was built in the first half of the 13th century, the upper part in 1267/1268 by Ottokar II of Bohemia.
On 11 February 1252, the sister of the last Babenberg Duke Frederick II, Margaret of Babenberg, married Ottokar II, Margrave of Moravia and later King of Bohemia, in the castle chapel on the Schlossberg.
In 1278 Ottokar lost the Battle of Dürnkrut. The castle came into the possession of the Habsburgs. They mortgaged the castle to various owners. The town was neglected and thus lost its importance. The castle passed into the possession of the town in 1629.
On 11 July 1683, during the "second Ottoman campaign" (Great Turkish War), the town was captured and completely destroyed, and the castle and fortifications suffered severe damage. The population tried to flee through the Fisherman's Gate into the Danube meadows, but the gate wings could not be opened in time. In the narrow alley in front of the Fischertor, there was mass panic and slaughter. According to tradition, over 8000 people died, almost the entire city population. One of the few survivors was the Wagnerian journeyman Thomas Haydn, grandfather of Joseph and Michael Haydn.
along the Danube